Scientific Teaching and Learning
Teaching and Learnig
If you are a teacher who is interested in helping your student to progress: you want students to develop increase capacities to continually minimize distractions and/or other occurrences that prevent them from paying attention to learning tasks and to develop increased capacities to learn independently, you are about to learn the five instructional steps of Goal and Task teaching and Learning methods that will help to simplify your teaching and learning efforts/processes. The teaching methods of GTTL have continued to help students develop increased interest in learning since it was first developed and used; and we have continued to develop the strategies and to help students develop and maintain increased attention to instructional tasks and learning activities. 

As a teacher, you seek effective methods of teaching that would help your students to maintain focused attention to learning activities. You want your students to excel and to develop increased interest in learning activities; you want your students to see relationships between learning activities, knowledge and life, and how these factors may help to address/resolve occurring problems. You hate to create stress for yourself and/or for your students; rather you yearn for an ideal learning environment, and for students to enjoy learning activities. With the simple methods of Goal ad Task Teaching and Learning, you get the tools you need to achieve your teaching goals and objectives. 


Mastery of Content and of Delivery

To teach well, teacher needs to have mastery of content and mastery of delivery. Mastery of content refers to knowledge and understanding of the subject matter; Mastery of delivery, on the other hand, refers to knowledge and understanding of student tendencies and teacher abilities to engage and manage such tendencies. Without content knowledge teacher has nothing to teach; with content knowledge, however, teacher may still not be able to teach if teacher does not have an understanding of and control over student interest/tendencies. Without a mastery of delivery, teacher cannot engage in deep and meaningful way with students, and students do not learn how they are expected to relate to one another, how relate to teacher, what to do and when, and the students may not learn well.

Students not teacher’s first impressions. They allow initial meetings with teachers for teachers to establish themselves and how people they are to relate to one another in the classroom. When a teacher fails to establish him/herself during the first meetings, it becomes increasingly difficult for teacher to do so. Even when teacher fails during the first meetings, teacher must still establish him/herself and how people are to relate to one another in the classroom; otherwise, the student will nor learn well. In other words, if teacher has no knowledge of and/or control over student interest/tendencies, teacher cannot help students to learn optimally. 

Grasping and understanding student interest or tendencies requires determined efforts. This may not be difficult. However, failure to grasp and/or understand student tendencies and to master instructional delivery methods that correspond to student tendencies/interest are most likely to render teacher unable to facilitate the students. Teachers experience difficulties in understanding student tendencies and in mastering corresponding instructional delivery methods because most educators do not emphasize student interest. Therefore many teachers do not engage and/or develop methods that relate to student interest. Too many educators equate student interest with what they believe to be the most appropriate goals/objectives for students to achieve; the result is that efforts to help teachers develop as professional are often diverted to focus upon content delivery methods or some other gimmicks, but not upon student interest.

Dewey (1934) points out that unless teacher understands student interest, the teacher cannot tell which direction the student will grow, and such teacher may be unable to help the students learn well. Since Dewey (1934), misunderstanding regarding student interest has become increasingly obvious. Krapp (2013) explains that educators operate with multifarious definitions and views of student interest. Renninger (2012) states that unless we develop a clear definition of students interest, we cannot operate with shared understanding in helping students to learn. These claims about student interest still remain the same today.

Teaching and Learning

One of the main reasons distraction/disruption occurs in classrooms is that during instruction, a teacher could be inactive for a considerable period of time; teacher might be “napping.” In such a period of inactivity, teacher is not quite fully engaged with students; thus, a teacher is said to “nap.” When a teacher is inactive (napping), especially in a class where teacher/students do not learn to focus and/or do not focus upon student interest, students are mostly without compulsion or constraint on their behaviors; and they do not learn independently. During a period in which a teacher might be inactive (or napping), referred to as instructional delivery vacuum (IDV), disgruntled and/or disruptive students often feel justified to act out.

A student who is upset especially because of whatever a teacher/student did often cease an IDV as an ample opportunity to mount revenge actions. During an IDV, a student who is upset may interject a remark, statement or ask a question with the sole purpose to placate self (rudely exert him/herself) without caring to violate a class rule, teacher or classmate. When a teacher is inactive or “napping,” an instructional delivery vacuum (IDV) occurs and disgruntled student who are not learning as they should and who are most likely to be disgruntled, disruptive and distractive may feel justified to act out. As if to say “this is why I am not learning,” students engage in distractive tendencies/behaviors during IDV.

A student (a sitting class member) is usually able to interrupt, distract or disrupt an ongoing class only during an occurrence of an instructional delivery vacuum (IDV). In other words, student can only disrupt and distract a class because teacher may lack a capacity to fully engage students during an instructional period/time. Many teachers do not know the right steps to take during moment of an instruction period; and this may spell disaster for the students. With Goal and Task Teaching and Learning (GTTL) methods training, however, teacher learns the steps to take, and teacher develops increased capacity to engage and guide students every moment of a lesson. 

****

At a most basic level of teacher understanding of student interest, teacher either sees students as advance/effective learners or novice/ineffective learners. Teachers adopts vertical instructional methods for advance/effective students or horizontal instruction methods for novice students; and, students do not learn how to learn independently. Vertical methods of instruction for advance learners consists of helping students to develop and understand relationships among concept and thus facilitating students to move from one concept to another in a vertical order. On the other hand, horizontal instruction consists of using instances and examples to illustrated and explain concepts, and is intended to help students consolidate concepts. At a most basic level of teacher understanding of student interest, teacher uses either vertical or horizontal instructional methods, but teachers do not use or learn to use the methods together.

At advance/higher levels of teachers’ understanding of student interest, each students is seen as expressing interest that pertain to the individual students. Teacher delivers instructions from the perspective of catering to and facilitating students according to individual student’s interest, concerns and abilities. Therefore, in addition to seeing students as either advance or novice learners, teacher who learns/uses the instructional methods of Goal and Task Teaching and Learning may also see students as expressing their individual tendencies or interest. They are able to identify and develop plan of actions through which to attend to, address and/or change tendencies opposed to students’ effectiveness. 

Considering these perspective of student interest, Center for Development of interest in Learning (CDOIL) researchers find that especially children (student) in the United States exhibit certain learning characteristics right from grade schools. Right from grade schools, children in the USA feel that they also have inalienable rights; they want to be treated with respect and dignity, they do not sit still when teacher does not have a viable game-plan. Unlike students in third world countries, coerced to sit still even when teacher may be doing nothing, American student will blame teacher, sometimes vehemently, when they cannot learn the concepts. 

Most educators in the United States, hopefully, know about the impending danger when teachers fail to understand student interest and do not help student understand, develop and realize their inalienable rights. Student know instinctively that nothing is worthwhile without a capacity to ensure nothing infringes upon their inalienable rights. These are some of the main concerns and constraints that push teaching and learning into the scientific realm, and Goal and Task Teaching and Learning (GTTL) is at the front and center of this development.

A teacher who understands student interest may not be quite different from a teacher who simply learns to and/or list activities and actions teachers must undertake in order to help students learn well. However, there are subtle differences which make all the difference. These differences are worth noting, for, they are in regard to the essential requirements without which teacher activities and actions would be failing to produce the desired impact/effects. In other words, teacher who understands student interest may also produce and/or operate with similar activities or actions as failing teachers. However, teacher who understands student interest do not merely produce and/or operate as other teachers; rather, they understand the natures, functions and significance of student interest, and they operate accordingly.

Teacher who understands student interest and specifically learn to use the instructional methods of Goal and Task Teaching and Learning (GTTL) are able to help students in fundamental and unique ways. Specifically, teacher who understand and use the instructional methods of GTTL are able to (1) develop and produce logical and justifiable reasons for the need of the actions and activities required to help students to learn well; (2) identify, reference and revisit grounds for and/or reasons behind teacher actions and activities; therefore, the teacher can also develop capacities to produce and tailor specific actions/activities related to specific occurrences and/or problems; and (3) develop increased capacities to prepare students to focus upon and model event/activities that are most likely to occur/repeat themselves in students’ lives.

Categories of Teachers

Even when certain things are fixed, many students still do not learn well because even teachers who consider student interest interpret student interest differently and they attend to students accordingly. Ordinarily, no one categorizes teaches; teacher are thought to have the same focus. No teacher sets out to be a bad teachers; each teacher sets out to do the best possible. However, without categorizing teachers, it is difficult/impossible to specify what teachers do differently; that is, what categories of teachers to emulate. Some educators try to set standard for teachers to emulate by giving out teachers of the year awards and to thereby identify characteristics of such teachers as the standard. However, this has not help to identify the specific methods through which student learn optimally. Selecting model teachers through nomination is unscientific and it has not given us any method that could be refined or improved upon.  

Center for Development of Interest in Learning (CDOIL Inc.) categorize teachers in accordance to whether the teacher is (1) an advocate of efforts, (2) an advocates of autonomy. Teacher may also be categorized in accordance to whether the teacher is one who does not at all (3) consider, understand and articulate concept of student interest, but nevertheless is reflective – involved and affected (4) consider, understand and articulate concept of student interest, but nevertheless is unreflective -- involved and unaffected 

Goal and Task Teaching and Learning (GTTL) 

The instructional methods of Goal and Task Teaching and Learning (GTTL) specifically address learning problems arising when teacher fail to consider and/or understand student interest. The focus of GTTL or learner-centered philosophy is to develop students who learn how to learn. A student who learns how to learn does not just learn for the sake of learning; rather, student learn with a purpose, a focus upon student tendencies. GTTL focuses upon and/or exploits student tendencies for student success. GTTL methods help students to generate knowledge, develop capacities to apply what they learn and to achieve succeed in addressing life problem. 

One of the first things a teacher learns as a practitioner or one who espouses and uses the Goal and Task Teaching and Learning (GTTL) methods, is the clear contrast of focus between GTTL methods on one hand, and the focus of the other methods. You will find, learn and understand methods like Student Center Teaching and Learning; Social and Cultural Teaching and Learning; Brain Based Teaching and Learning that have all being in the market for years, sometimes for decades, and the reason they fall short of helping students to learn in optimally.  

GTTL and Student Efforts 

Other instructional methods may claim to teach and help students to create environment that supports, accepts and embraces diverse learners, but they often emphasize “transfer” or learning through which one may “transfer” but not “generate” knowledge. However, natures of or future occurrences are not a certainty; in the computers age and information saturated world, merely learning to transfer, where what is transfer is not more what one did in a given situation, is less than desirable. Otherwise, one might simply transfer what is learned in one situation and find such knowledge to be effective because it cannot and could not have all the elements as equally the same as they were in the former situation. 

In other words, with GTTL, the question about “transfer” becomes one about “replication” of knowledge; that is, how to teach division concepts, for instance, so that when student has a need for such knowledge, student can generate, and not merely reach for or to “it,” and thus to more effectively/efficiently address the situation. Answering this question about “transfer” requires, first, a comprehensive theory of student interest.
Goal and Task Teaching and Learning (GTTL)

You might want to ask “where has this GTTL methods been? Right now you can learn all about GTTL and related programs at www.cdoil.org/publications


Benefits of the Goal and Task Teaching and Learning

(A) GTTL is an instructional method focused to integrate student concerns with instructional subject matter (in-school and out-of-school concerns/experiences. 
(B) *GTTL ensures that while students are learning as fast as possible and are passing tests, they are also enjoying learning tasks, preparing for college and for a world of work. 
(C) *Goal and Task Teaching and Learning (GTTL) features five instructional steps, all geared to help students develop interest in learning; they include 
(D) *(GTTL philosophy emphasizes the need for a teacher to be conscious of and deliberate in taking the steps necessary in helping students to develop increased interest in learning. 
(E) *GTTL teacher uses differentiated levels of questions to include all students in the same activities and to help low-performing students to actively participate in learning. 
(F) GTTL uses Thinking Maps, graphic organizer and elements of the instructional steps to simplify concepts for students and facilitate instructional delivery task for teachers. 
(G) *An outstanding feature of the GTTL methods is that teacher may integrate GTTL methods with and facilitate methods in use without changing what is already working. 

*Take action; explore instructional materials of GTTL and professional development training/services programs at www.cdoil.org/publications

Center for Development of Interest in Learning CDOIL)

Research at the Center for Development of Interest in Learning (CDOIL Inc.) is focused upon investigating, understanding and clarifying concepts of student interest. This efforts have been ongoing now for more than a decade, (10) consecutive years. The result of this ten consecutive years of focused efforts is the development of Goal and Task Teaching and Learning (GTTL), an instructional delivery methods with the central focus to address student interest and tendencies, and to help students to develop increased interest in learning.

GTTL consists of five instructional steps; the Five (5) steps of Goal and Task Teaching and Learning (GTTL) are intended to build upon the step before it and upon one another. Each step of the GTTL helps students to maintain continuous and focused attention to learn the subjects. With the GTTL, teacher learn the constituting elements of each step and how each step builds upon the step before it and/or upon one another. Teacher are able to identify elements of student interest, the five (5) steps of GTTL teaching and to help students develop familiarity with student tendencies and how to guide them. Otherwise, students may not develop interest in learning, and student may lack the capacities to develop awareness of and/or guide student tendencies.

GTTL Teacher

One of the first things you will learn as a practitioner or one who espouses and uses the Goal and Task Teaching and Learning (GTTL) methods, is the clear focus/emphasis of or contrast between GTTL methods on one hand, and the focus of the other methods, on the other. Teachers will learn and differentiate among methods like Student Center Teaching and Learning; Social and Cultural Teaching and Learning; Brain Based Teaching and Learning. These methods of teaching have all being in the market for years, sometimes for decades; and, teacher will learn about reasons they fall short of helping students to learn in optimally.  

Specifically, GTTL teachers teach with a focus to help students develop increased interest in learning. GTTL teachers learn to facilitate and to help students develop skills to connect previous learning or activities with concepts of the intended topic. Teachers want student to apply what students learn from school and to effectively address problems. During instruction, however, many teachers do not deliberately help student develop or understanding connections between concepts of present and past activities; accordingly, teacher fail to give student a head start in understanding the proper relationships between in-school and out-of-school concerns. Where student continue to see instructions as different and thus unconnected to actual experiences, student may be unable to flow with the teacher and grasp connections between past and present activities, facilitate reflection necessary to understand a present topic. 

Teachers learn to help students develop behavior, performances and/or actions students are expected to produce during learning, and how and/or when students are expected to produce such performances or actions, and; thus to facilitate students in practicing and applying such methods. Teacher learns about the factors necessary to help students understand, simplify and master instructional concepts. For example, teacher learns how to develop contexts of instruction. Otherwise, student do not gain insights into the different ways they might conceptualizing problem, develop and see/practice the different approaches and/or methods that professional use to address and solve problem. 

*Take action; explore instructional materials of GTTL and professional development training/services programs at www.cdoil.org/publications